Mr. Pushkin created provocative shows of opposition to Lukashenko, a former Soviet bureaucrat who has held energy in Belarus since 1994 via withering crackdowns on dissent and rigged elections, in response to Western officers and rights teams.
In 1996, Mr. Pushkin painted a church mural in his hometown Bobr depicting the prophecy of the Final Judgment with the face of a hell-bound sinner harking back to Lukashenko. That a part of the mural was ordered faraway from public view.
Three years later, Mr. Pushkin hauled a red-painted hand cart stuffed with horse manure to the presidential workplace in Belarus’s capital, Minsk, and dumped the load on the gates. He left a picket plaque thanking Lukashenko “for the fruitful work” and drove a pitchfork via a Lukashenko poster. Mr. Pushkin acquired a two-year suspended sentence.
Mr. Pushkin’s dying elevated him to martyr standing amongst Belarus’s embattled opposition however is unlikely to rally any renewed push towards Lukashenko after years of systematic repression. The jailing of presidency critics “constitutes an unacceptable apply that violates human rights,” stated the Belarusian rights group Viasna.
Mr. Pushkin joined waves of anti-Lukashenko protests linked to elections in 2020. Lukashenko’s regime jailed the principle opposition figures however confronted a brand new slate of rivals led by women, together with the spouse of an activist who was put behind bars. Many high Lukashenko critics fled the nation amid widespread arrests and allegations of torture.
Mr. Pushkin refused self-exile — even rejecting a proposal of asylum from Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky’s authorities in 2021 when Mr. Pushkin took part in an artwork exhibition in Kyiv. (He recreated his “Dung for the President” piece for the present.)
“There are two sorts of Belarusian artists,” he said to the information website Open Democracy in a 2011 interview. “Official and unofficial. But it surely’s not a query of ‘this artwork is sweet, this artwork is unhealthy,’ it’s a query of complicity and conformism.”
In late March 2021, Mr. Pushkin was a part of a group serving to restore Bulgakov Palace, a Nineteenth-century property impressed by Versailles, when police raided his house. Journalists known as Mr. Pushkin for remark as he was gilding one of many halls. “I’ve gold on my fingers,” he told Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty’s Belarus Service. Hours later, police got here to the palace and dragged him off the scaffolding, in response to media accounts.
The fees stemmed from a portray he made in 2012 depicting an anti-Soviet resistance fighter, Yevgeny Zhikhar, holding a machine gun. Prosecutors alleged the work, which was on exhibit on the time, was aimed on the “rehabilitation of Nazism.” (Lukashenko’s ally, Russian President Vladimir Putin, used comparable rhetoric towards Zelensky earlier than Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine.)
At Mr. Pushkin’s trial in 2022, he demanded he symbolize himself. Then, because the prosecution laid out its case, he rolled over on the bench within the defendant’s cage together with his again to the courtroom. His supporters stated that Mr. Pushkin’s portray celebrated the resistance fighter’s postwar stand towards the Kremlin’s management moderately than his earlier collaborations with Nazi forces.
When the responsible verdict was learn, Mr. Pushkin revealed self-inflicted slash marks on his abdomen within the form of a cross. He was sentenced to 5 years within the Grodno penal colony.
Rights teams designated Mr. Pushkin as a political prisoner — amongst practically 1,500 critics of Lukashenko’s authorities jailed lately, together with 2022 Nobel Peace Prize winner Ales Bialiatski.
“Dictators worry artists [who] maintain a mirror to the world, one which tyrants dread to look into,” stated opposition chief Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, who ran towards Lukashenko within the 2020 election and is the spouse of a jailed anti-government blogger, Sergei Tikhanovsky. She later fled the nation.
From jail, Mr. Pushkin made drawings of inmate life, together with self-portraits with hole cheeks and a burning gaze, and allegorical pictures usually executed in monochrome washes of purple or blue. In a single sketch, a gaggle of bedraggled males search for at a butterfly that provides off rays as if from a non secular icon — a kind of artistry that Mr. Pushkin studied.
In one other drawing, a determine seems standing stiffly, blindfolded and gagged.
Alexander Mikhailovich Pushkin was born on Aug. 6, 1965, in Bobr, about 80 miles northeast of Minsk, when Belarus was a part of the Soviet Union. He graduated in 1983 from a fine-arts boarding college and enrolled on the Belarusian State Theater and Artwork Institute.
In 1984, he was drafted into the Soviet navy and spent two years in Afghanistan, which Moscow’s forces occupied from 1979 to 1989. The ruthlessness of struggle, he stated, modified his perceptions of life within the Soviet Union.
“That’s once I stopped being frightened of the federal government, the KGB, the police,” he as soon as stated. “And it was solely 20 years later that I got here to appreciate I paint icons for Orthodox and Catholic church buildings by means of repentance for my cruelty — even when it was in a faraway land.”
He acquired his arts diploma in 1990, a 12 months earlier than the collapse of the Soviet Union. His capstone challenge in artwork college, an enormous mural, earned him a job as a state-funded artist in Vitebsk, close to the hometown of painter Marc Chagall.
However Mr. Pushkin was already beneath rising scrutiny. He was arrested throughout Belarus nationalist rallies in 1988 and 1989, together with serving to create posters that mocked Soviet-style ideology. In March 1991, Mr. Pushkin rode via Vitebsk on a donkey after which launched doves to symbolize freedom.
After independence, Mr. Pushkin opened one of many nation’s first non-public artwork galleries in 1993 and helped with stage design tasks for performances corresponding to “King Lear.” (Mr. Pushkin stated within the documentary “A New Sky Over a New Land” that he got here to the opening evening with a monkey, which he left within the cloakroom.)
To spice up his revenue, Mr. Pushkin developed experience in restoring frescoes and icons, lots of which had been partially destroyed or hidden throughout the Soviet many years.
Survivors embrace his spouse of 26 years.
Throughout some court docket appearances over the many years, Mr. Pushkin stated he tried to show the proceedings into efficiency artwork with judges and others as unwitting foils. “Taking part in the holy idiot is the very best type of freedom that’s ever existed at any time in our nation,” he stated in 2011.
He generally refused to stroll into court docket and compelled police to hold him to the docket. In one trial in 2019, he demanded the choose communicate the Belarusian language, which is linguistically distinct from Russian. The choose complied.
“The police and the choose …. grow to be a part of the efficiency with out realizing it themselves,” he stated. “Although they do, naturally, understand what an absurd scenario they’ve put themselves in.”